Tag Archives: probable cause

Caldwell County, NC Sheriff’s Deputy Demands ID From Couple Suspiciously Eating Lunch

North Carolina Deputy ID Couple Suspiciously Eating Lunch

Caldwell County (NC) Sheriff’s Deputy Victor Misenheimer approached a couple eating lunch in their car and falsely claimed they are required to provide ID to any police officer upon demand.

Note: The video and description included within this post was shared with Nevada Cop Block via reader submission. If you have videos, stories, upcoming events/protests, or personal interactions with the police (and/or “justice” system) that you would like to share, send them to us and we will do everything we can to bring it to the attention of the world. In addition, you can visit the Nevada Cop Block resources section for information and links to the rights of citizens when dealing with police, during which you should always be filming.

Chad Love, who submitted the video, states in his description below that he and his girlfriend were sitting in their car within a public park eating lunch when Deputy Misenheimer deemed that suspicious and began harassing them. Regardless of Misenheimer’s personal opinion, legally that is not a reasonable suspicion of them having committed a crime.

In addition, as Love also states in that description, North Carolina is not a “Stop and ID” state. (Misenheimer even aknowledges that it isn’t in the video.) In states without Stop and ID statutes, you are actually not required to identify yourself, even when there is reasonable suspicion. The reasonable suspicion requirement applies to when you can be lawfully detained by the police.

In states with Stop and ID statutes, being lawfully detained is what allows the police to compel you to identify yourself (otherwise you can be arrested for obstruction). However, if there is no Stop and Id statute in your state, you are not legally required to identify yourself unless you are actually being arrested (which would require probable cause).

(Also, “articulable suspicion,” which Deputy Misenheimer mentions in the video, is not really a thing. What he is confusing it with is the requirement that a reasonable suspicion has to be based on articulable facts. Essentially, what that means is they have to be able to explain a basis for the suspicion, not just state that they were suspicious of something.)

In most states, including North Carolina, the one exception that allows police to demand ID from someone occurs when they are driving. Legally, the police can demand identification from the driver of a car. That is based on the requirement to have a driver’s license when driving.

So, that would be the one instance in which Deputy Mizenheimer is correct in relation to Chad’s girlfriend having to provide ID because she’s the driver. However, based on the fact he doesn’t cite that as a reason and argues (incorrectly) about reasonable suspicion, Misenheimer doesn’t seem to actually know why that is. Regardless, he clearly doesn’t understand that it does not also apply to the passenger of a car.

Incidentally, whether you are a driver and/or have been legally detained, you are not required to tell the police anything beyond your identity. At all times, you have and should exercise the right to remain silent. Talking to the police is never a good idea and if the police are looking for a reason to arrest you more than likely all you are going to do is help them find one.

Obviously, there aren’t any “crimes” more serious than two people eating in their car at a public park in need of investigation out there in Caldwell County, NC. We should all thank Deputy Victor Misenheimer for the bravery he displayed on this video in heroically confronting these dangerous criminals.

Date of Incident: September 2nd, 2017
Officer Involved: Deputy Victor Misenheimer
Department Involved: Caldwell County Sheriff’s Office
Department Phone No.: (828) 758-2324
Sheriff Alan C. Jones: (828)754-1518
Facebook: Caldwell County Sheriff’s Office on FB
Twitter: North Carolina Sheriff’s Association

My girlfriend and I were sitting at the park in Sawmills, NC minding our own business. We had been at the park for about twenty minutes while we ate lunch. This occurred on Saturday September 2, 2017 at approximately 12:00 PM.

Deputy Misenheimer of the Caldwell County Sheriff’s Department decided to stop behind our car while we ate lunch. The deputy approached the vehicle and asked what we were doing and why. We advised him that we were eating lunch.

The deputy then asked for ID’s from my girlfriend, who was driving, and also from me. I advised him we hadn’t done anything and we don’t have to provide identification. My girlfriend complied with his request. While it’s not on the video, the officer threatened to arrest me under the resist, delay and obstruct an officer statute.

I asked what was his reasonable suspicion that we had committed a crime or were about to. The deputy then proceeded to to treat us like criminals. I did not give my ID and have logged a complaint with the sheriff’s department.

If you agree that this stop borderlines harassment, please contact the department at 828-754-1518 and let Sheriff Alan C. Jones know. Remember, if you don’t stand for your rights, they will continue to be violated. I have no problem with the deputy interacting with us, but North Carolina is not a stop and identify state and he made it seem like my refusal to provide ID was against the law.

This is government tyranny. The same thing we fought England over. Now is the time to stop this! I would have agreed with the officer in regards to there being reasonable suspicion if things had been different. For example, the time of day or night, it being Saturday, as well as the fact that there were other people using the park (none of that should be considered suspicious).

The officer stated we were suspicious. It’s a public park at noon on a Saturday. How is that suspicious? Especially, if we are visibly eating.

– Chad Love

Related Content on NVCopBlock.org:

  1. Video – Detained by Nevada Police for “Suspiciously” Sitting in a Car
  2. Body Cam Video: Alabama Mother Unlawfully Arrested After Saying “Fuck The Police”
  3. Submit Your Own Story of Police Abuse/Corruption
  4. Help Wanted! How You Can Become Involved With NVCopBlock
  5. #FTP – How and Why You Should Always Film The Police
  6. Press Passes for Independent Media and Freelance Journalists
  7. How to File a Freedom Of Information Act (FOIA) Request
  8. “Let Me See Your I.D.” Stop and Identify Statutes – Know Your Rights
  9. Beware of Gang Activity in Your Neighborhood!
  10. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: The LVMPD’s Killer Reputation
  11. A Video Compilation of Las Vegas Area Police Brutality
  12. Donate to the Cause – Help Us Help You Fight The Power
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Key West Police Wrongfully Arrest Homeless Man Then Assault Him After Turning Their Body Cameras Off

Key West Florida Police Brutality Homeless Body Camera

The following videos were originally posted at the “Blue Paper” an independent newspaper located in Key West, Florida. All commentary included on the videos are those of a contributor to the Blue Paper. In addition, police reports and all body camera footage that are included within this post were acquired by contributors and/or the staff of the Blue Paper and subsequently submitted to  Nevada Cop Block.  Between the commentary on the video and the video itself this incident is actually somewhat self-explanatory.

Naja and Arnaud Gerard, the editors of the Blue Paper, originally received a video taken by a concerned bystander of a homeless man, who had already been restrained, being treated roughly by a pair of Key West police officers during an arrest. This arrest took place in February of this year and resulted from a trespassing complaint by the manager of a local Publix grocery store. The justification given for this “rough arrest” was that the man being arrested, Kristopher Knight, had kicked the window of the police car once he was placed inside.

That original video was described in a post on the Blue Paper:

The initial bystander video showed Mr. Knight screaming in pain while Key West police officers were handling him. His hands were already cuffed and his legs had been tied with some sort of leash [a hobble strap]. It was not clear what kind of resistance the short 25-year-old would still have been able to show the officers. The level of pressure used on Knight was disturbing for some of our viewers; others found it perfectly justified.

After that video surfaced, public records requests were used to acquire the police report filed by Officers Julio Gomez and Michael Chaustit that day, as well as their body camera footage from the incident. This provided the entire context of the incident from the time the officers first arrived to the time they left.

Interestingly enough however, by some amazing “coincidence” one portion of the arrest was somehow not captured by the officers’ body cams. This, of course, was the part where the officers have pulled Knight back out of the police car. In fact, the body cameras were able to capture everything up to that point and everything after Knight was placed back into the car perfectly fine.

Due to the convenient timing, a skeptical person might even be tempted to think the cameras were intentionally turned off at that key moment. Fortunately though, the bystander was there filming the police as they threw Knight around and twisted his already cuffed arms. Therefore, between the body cam footage and the bystander’ cell phone video, there’s a pretty complete visual record of what happened between Knight and the police that afternoon.

The full incident was described in the Blue Paper’s post:

footage showed Mr. Knight dozing, while sitting down in front of Publix at Key Plaza. One officer, Officer Julio Gomez, wakes him up, and inquires about his condition. He is obtaining reasonable answers and compliance from Knight who he continues to address politely.

Another officer however, Officer Michael Chaustit immediately breaks into foul language and a confrontational attitude. Knight is ordered off the property. He complies, but as he is walking and once he gets about 30 feet away, he yells loudly “Fuck y’all Motherfuckers!” Officer Chaustic is heard saying, “Nope!” Gomez asks: “You want to take him?” Answer, “Yep”.

Chaustit follows behind Knight. He orders “Stop!” Knight raises his hands over his head but keeps walking “Man I didn’t do nothing.” Officer Chaustit, who is twice Knight’s size, throws him into what appears to be some plastic drums then grabs him again and throws him, flying across the walkway, where his head stops inches from a cement column. From that moment on and at all times thereafter Chaustit uses one form or another of “pain compliance.”

The whole thing is captured by KWPD’s new body worn cameras, to one exception: the really disturbing scene, where Knight is completely restrained and yet constantly subjected to pain, that part, is not recorded. The footage however resumes immediately after, as Knight is being put back inside the police cruiser.

It’s pretty evident in the video who was the aggressor that day. From the time he arrived, Officer Chaustit is verbally abusive and confrontational, even when Officer Gomez is being fairly polite and Knight is being cooperative. Obviously, Chaustit is waiting for any excuse to arrest Knight and likely hoping for an opportunity to use force against him. Shortly after, when Knight yells, “Fuck y’all Motherfuckers!” Chaustit seizes his opportunity and proceeds to assault, arrest, and then once again assault him after pulling him out of the car.

Within their post, Arnaud and Naja Gerard also state they contacted Key West Police Chief Donie Lee, who subsequently ordered a review of the incident by the KWPD Professional Standards Department. As a result, according to a statement from Chief Lee, Officer Chaustit received some unspecified “discipline” for his actions (described as a reprimand in the Blue Paper’s post):

“We have concluded our review of the arrest of Kristopher Knight by Ofc. Chaustit on Feb. 4, 2017.  Although we believe there was probable cause for the arrest, we believe the arrest was based on an emotional reaction to provocation by Knight.  My expectation is that our officers always strive to maintain their professionalism and avoid attitude arrest. Ofc. Chaustit also didn’t use his body cam according to policy.  Ofc. Chaustit has been disciplined for his actions.  He is a good officer and has accepted responsibility for his actions. We have determined that the use of force in this arrest was within policy.”

The basic gist of that is “we found that Officer Chaustit probable cause (of which cursing at the police isn’t) to arrest Knight, but it was unprofessional of him to do so because someone had insulted him. And he violated department policy by turning his body camera off right before he assaulted Knight the second time, but Officer Chaustit is a Good Cop and promised not to do it again.”

The video shows otherwise, though. Officer Chaustit, like many of his “Brothas in Blue,” is a violent bully who was looking for an excuse to assault someone whose dangerous crime was coming onto someone else’s property without their permission and going to sleep. It’s not a situation that should require force against a person who is being compliant, even if they are being verbally defiant in the process, especially when Chaustit initiated the hostility himself. And in spite of his “acceptance of responsibility for his actions,” you’d be foolish to believe this was the first time Ofc. Chaustit unnecessarily used violence against another person, even more so if you believe it will be the last.

Full Video With Additional Commentary

Unedited Bystander Video

Bystander and Body Camera Videos Combined

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Noblesville PD Ignores Alcoholic Lieutenant, Investigates Identity of Person Who Exposed Her

The following post was shared with the Copblock Network by Jeremy Sipes, via the CopBlock.org Submissions Page. This submission is a follow up to a previous submission from June.

According to Jeremy, the Noblesville Police Department is much more interested in finding out who sent a previous submission exposing the drinking problems of one of their Lieutenants than they are in addressing the fact that a high ranking officer in their department has such severe a drinking problem.

Date of Incident: August 1, 2016
Officer Involved: Lt. Shannon Trump
Department Involved: Noblesville (IN) Police Department
Department Address: 135 S 9th St. Noblesville, IN 46060

Poor, poor Lieutenant Trump of the Noblesville Police Department is suffering from a severely chapped ass because of the Copblock post exposing her drunken adventures. Since she experienced her 15 minutes of social media fame, Lt. Trump has sworn vengeance on all of those responsible for bringing her binge drinking endeavors to the public’s eye.

In between coating Lt. Trump’s burned bottom with ointment, Noblesville detectives have been working feverishly to find the source of this post. Rather than focusing their attention on their officer’s obvious problem with booze, the department has initiated an “official” police investigation.

In Hamilton County, Indiana, law enforcement officers aren’t trained on the state’s law and the U.S. Constitution. Rather, they are taught how to get around those rights, how to violate them and get away with it. In Hamilton County, when an officer see’s his or her name in/on a Copblock post, it’s grounds for the issuance of subpoenas for IP addresses, Facebook accounts and probable cause for search warrants so that these patriots can be brought to justice! You know what they say; “If you can’t do the time, don’t do the time.

Lt. Trump seems to think that her embarrassment over a submission exposing her misconduct and obvious issues with alcohol, “Trumps” that of a concerned citizen’s right to free speech. So fellow Copblocker’s beware; In Hamilton Co., IN., if you expose police corruption or utilize your  First Amendment rights, your personal accounts could be compromised by these thugs with badges and you could be charged criminally for hurting a police officer’s feelings.

– Jeremy Sipes

 

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Harassment of Innocent Man by NYPD Thugs in Blue Spawns Another CopBlocker

The following post was shared with the Nevada Cop Block by Sergio Crocco, via the NVCopBlock.org Submissions Page. The post discusses an incident in which Sergio was harassed by a group of NYPD officers seemingly on a fishing trip hoping to find someone to quickly pad their quota numbers.

He also discusses his reaction to this treatment and how and why he intends to become more active against such rights abuses in the future. If you feel the same way and would like to get more involved in your own area, you can visit the CopBlock Groups Page to connect woth others already active in your community. If there isn’t already a CopBlock Network affiliate where you live you can also Start a Group yourself.

It was a beautiful Saturday night in Gowanis, Brooklyn at the Nihil Gallery, 251 Douglass St. A few friends and I were standing out front of the small art gallery/live music space waiting for the final band to get on stage and enjoying our night peacefully when a police van slowly drove by followed by an unmarked police cruiser. Some of the patrons who had beer cans with them outside were trying to hide them or get rid of them to avoid a summons, and then the unmarked cruiser stopped right in front of the gallery.

I was standing the farthest away from the small crowd with my arms crossed the whole time thinking, “oh boy here we go…someone’s getting a ticket for having an open container out on the street.”

The three thugs open their doors, exit the vehicle and walk through the crowd – straight to me. Thug #1, a heavy-set 5’5″ African American woman stands in front of me and says, “I saw you throw that beer can over there” as she aims her flashlight towards a nearby fence to an empty lot.

I replied, “I didn’t have a can in my hand, I wasn’t drinking anything, I didn’t throw anything.”

Thug #2, a 5’8″ Caucasian male, says in a threatening tone, “Give her your ID, NOW.” So with nothing to hide and without thinking I handed over my ID.

Thug #1 takes my ID and says, “You better be 100% sure you didn’t throw that can.”

I replied, “I’m 1000% percent sure.”

So the three thugs walk back to their cruiser and spend ten minutes looking up my ID, trying to find anything on me. I walk towards the car and stand on the sidewalk watching them, while most of the crowd goes inside or continue with their conversations. Two of my friends stand back towards the building watching the thugs and only one other gallery-attendee stood and watched and supported me.

Then Thug #1 and #2 exit the vehicle and come towards me. Thug #2, in his threatening tone tells me “Come here.” I take two steps off the curb to get closer to the pig, purposely placing myself behind a parked motorcycle and a plastic barrier, giving myself some security from any physical contact. He then asks, “Have you lived on Watchung Ave in Bloomfield, NJ?” although he mispronounces Watchung.

My reply was, “No, I live in Woodland Park.” Of course I did used to live on Watchung Ave., but he pronounced it wrong. So I never did reside at the mispronounced street!

Then he says, “They’re both in Jersey right?” I say, “I guess so.” So, failing at their second attempt, the two thugs get back in the car, Thug #3 sitting in the back seat looking as if she wanted no part in what was going on. They continue trying to find information about me on what seemed to be a smartphone, passing it between the three of them and then finally giving up.

Thug #1 disappointingly exits the vehicle a final time and hands me my ID. She says, “Next time don’t lie to the cops.” I calmly say, “I didn’t.” and walk away into the gallery to get a much needed drink.

This was my first encounter with gestapo-like thug police. I’m what some would consider the “privileged white male” and never thought I would be victim to random police terrorism like this, or at least not til into the nearby future where the pigs openly turn into Nazis and escalate their terrorism amongst any and all.

When they walked up to me, a million things were going through my head, and yes I feared for my life, but I remained somewhat calm and chose not to “run my mouth” like I normally do when I get pulled over for a traffic violation.

One thought was three armed thugs just started bullying me and I might get beaten or shot. I also thought about the contents of my pockets: a vape pen with cannabis oil, and a pocket knife with a 4″ blade. If they were to have searched me I could’ve been arrested, and detained in some discreet location, so I feared that as well.

My actions in cooperating with them were probably wrong, and I didn’t have to give them my ID. But with seconds to react I did what they asked. That was their goal, to get my ID and find a real reason to summons or arrest me. The bullshit about tossing a beer can was their “probable cause.”

This encounter has changed me. Some will say that nothing bad happened, but from the very start something bad happened, my freedom was tossed out the window. I was bullied and terrorized, but yes physically unharmed. I didn’t deserve it and the thousands who have been brutalized, abused, murdered, or just harassed, did not deserve it. The only way this will stop is if we stand united against these fascists.

I was most disappointed with the crowd who ignored the thugs because they weren’t being harassed. They all should’ve stood out on that curb with me. The strength of unity and support is one of the strongest weapons against police thugs. Imagine the thirty or so crowd standing behind me in silence watching the three thugs.

Imagine anyone else walking or driving down the street stopping to support and unite with me against the fascists. Those thugs would’ve ran off with their tails between their legs, and I’ve seen it happen in some videos Nevada Cop Block has posted. The world has seen it happen during some of the most fascist times in history. Unite to fight police terror!

Hopefully I’ll be more prepared next time with recording, gathering the thugs’ info, and standing up for myself or others more intelligently. And thank you CopBlock for being here and doing what you do.

– Sergio Crocco

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Cops Enter House Without Warrant, Assault Family, Find Nothing

The video embedded below was posted to Facebook by the fan page for “Raphael RJ2,” a musician and producer who is part of “Beats How U Want ‘Em,” which is described as a “platinum and Grammy winning production team.”

The exact location where this was posted isn’t listed within the descriptions of the video, although it states that it was uploaded from Durham, North Carolina.

Below is the description posted along with the video:

What do you do when 8 Police Come to your door & Say “We smell weed & we need to check your house” and you say “No you can’t come in without a Search Warrant? Here’s the Answer:
1. Cops Burst in saying “We know that your son sells drugs”
2. Everybody in the house tased including one hit in the face by a Glock 9, then Choked & Kicked.
3. Everybody in the house Sits handcuffed for 4-5 hours while the Cops waited for the search warrant.
4. They find nothing?
5…..What do you do?

It shows a group of (eight, per the description) cops searching  a families house. Within the video the members of that family state that the cops had no permission to search the house, nor did they have a warrant to do so.

Apparently, according to the description posted, the pretense the police used to search the house was that they smelled marijuana and allegedly because “they know one of the residents’ children sells drugs.” (Which has been ruled by an appellate court as not a sufficient enough reason to constitute probable cause.)

In the beginning of the video and within that description, one of the residents states that a cop hit him in the head with his gun. Also, toward the end the cops become very aggressive and threatening. At that point, the video ends, presumably because the person filming it has been handcuffed. There’s no mention of any subsequent arrests.

It’s a pretty chaotic scene and there is a lot of yelling, but in spite of that it’s pretty clear that the cops didn’t find any sort of drugs or anything else illegal within the house.

Even if they had actually found drugs within the house, especially something as benign and harmless (and many would even argue beneficial) as marijuana, would that really justify terrorizing, assaulting, and holding people hostage while threatening to shoot them, as is depicted in this video?

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Lawsuit: Henderson, NV Police Unlawfully Jailed Woman For Six Months

A Henderson, Nevada woman has claimed in a lawsuit that she was unlawfully held in jail for six months. Vanessa Kelley’s estranged spouse, Audrey Young, had accused her of attempted murder and she was jailed under the pretense of those charges being investigated. However, at the time the attack supposedly took place, Kelley was at the Clark County Family Court filing for a restraining order against Young. Her presence at the Family Court could have easily been confirmed by reviewing the surveillance video there.

Instead, police held Kelley alternatively at the Henderson Detention Center and the Clark County Detention Center (CCDC) in Las Vegas. Even though police were aware of her contention that she was at the courthouse at the time, they failed to investigate those claims. As a result, she remained in jail for six months as they conducted their investigation of the charge against her of attempted murder with a deadly weapon.

Via the Las Vegas Review Journal:

The document alleges Henderson police Detectives Mark Hosaka and Chad Mitchell lacked probable cause to arrest Kelley, whose criminal case later was dismissed.

According to the lawsuit, the detectives “had an affirmative constitutional obligation to obtain the exculpatory evidence” but chose not to comply with those obligations.

Defendants in the lawsuit include the city of Henderson, Hosaka and Mitchell.

“Had the defendants investigated the matter in a constitutionally adequate fashion, they would have found that Audrey Young suffers from severe psychological issues,” the complaint alleges.

Kelley’s lawsuit also states that she was denied her medications and proper medical care “for her serious medical needs” during the time that she was wrongfully imprisoned.

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“Let Me See Your I.D.” Stop and Identify Statutes – Know Your Rights

Stop and ID Statutes Map States Nevada Cop Block

Everyone should know their rights regardless, but it’s even more essential that you do if you intend to go out and film the police. Therefore, you should know if the state you live in has passed “stop and identify” statutes. If that is the case, then you should also know what is and isn’t required under such laws.

In 24 states police may require you to identify yourself. (If they have reasonable suspicion that you’re involved in criminal activity.)

“Stop and identify” statutes are laws in the United States that allow police to detain persons and request such persons to identify themselves, and arrest them if they do not.

Except when driving, the requirement to identify oneself does not require a person who has been detained to provide physical identification. Verbally giving identifying information is sufficient to satisfy that requirement.

In the United States, interactions between police and citizens fall into three general categories: consensual (“contact” or “conversation”), detention (often called a Terry stop), or arrest. “Stop and identify” laws pertain to detentions.

Consensual

At any time, police may approach a person and ask questions. However, the person approached is not required to identify himself or answer any other questions, and may leave at any time.

Police are not usually required to tell a person that he is free to decline to answer questions and go about his business. A person can usually determine whether or not the interaction is consensual by asking, “Am I free to go?”

Detention

Police may briefly detain a person if they have reasonable suspicion that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime. Embedded below are videos from Flex Your Rights describing what reasonable suspicion is and when you are required to provide ID to the police. Police may question a person detained in a Terry stop, but in general, the detainee is not required to answer.[10] However, many states have “stop and identify” laws that explicitly require a person detained under the conditions of Terry to identify himself to police, and in some cases, provide additional information. (As of February 2011, the Supreme Court has not addressed the validity of requirements that a detainee provide information other than his name.)

Arrest

A detention requires only that police have reasonable suspicion that a person is involved in criminal activity. However, to make an arrest, an officer must have probable cause to believe that the person has committed a crime. Some states require police to inform the person of the intent to make the arrest and the cause for the arrest. But it is not always obvious when a detention becomes an arrest. After making an arrest, police may search a person, his or her belongings.

Variations in “stop and identify” laws

  • Five states’ laws (Arizona, Indiana, Louisiana, Nevada, and Ohio) explicitly impose an obligation to provide identifying information.
  • Fourteen states grant police authority to ask questions, with varying wording, but do not explicitly impose an obligation to respond:
  • In Montana, police “may request” identifying information;
  • In 12 states (Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Utah, Wisconsin), police “may demand” identifying information;
  • In Colorado, police “may require” identifying information of a person.
  • Identifying information varies, but typically includes
  • Name, address, and an explanation of the person’s actions;
  • In some cases it also includes the person’s intended destination, the person’s date of birth (Indiana and Ohio), or written identification if available (Colorado).
  • Arizona’s law, apparently written specifically to codify the holding in Hiibel, requires a person’s “true full name”.
  • Nevada’s law, which requires a person to “identify himself or herself”, apparently requires only that the person state his or her name.
  • In five states (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island), failure to identify oneself is one factor to be considered in a decision to arrest. In all but Rhode Island, the consideration arises in the context of loitering or prowling.
  • Seven states (Arizona, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, New Mexico, Ohio, and Vermont) explicitly impose a criminal penalty for noncompliance with the obligation to identify oneself.
  • Virginia makes it a non-jailable misdemeanor to refuse to identify oneself to a conservator of the peace when one is at the scene of a breach of the peace witnessed by that conservator.

What is Reasonable Suspicion?

When Are You Required to Provide ID to the Police?

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